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ANALYSIS OF FRICTION STIR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING AND FRICTION STIR WELDING OF AL6061-T6 VIA NUMERICAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENTS
thesisposted on 14.12.2020, 21:23 by Nitin Rohatgi
Aluminum 6061 is extensively used in industry and welding and additive manufacturing (AM) of Al6061 offer flexibility in manufacturing. Solid-state welding and AM processes can overcome the shortcomings of fusion-based processes, such as porosity and hot cracking. In this thesis, friction stir welding and friction stir additive manufacturing, which are both based on the concepts of friction stir processing (solid-state), were studied. The welding parameters for a sound weld during friction stir welding of Al6061-T6 alloy were determined based on the experimental and numerical analysis. Formation of tunnel defects and cavity defects was also studied. A Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) finite element model was established to analyze the process, where the workpiece was modeled as an Eulerian body, and the tool as Lagrangian. The model was validated by conducting experiments and correlating the force measured by a three-axis dynamometer. The experimentally validated simulation model was used to find an optimum parameter set for the sound weld case.
To demonstrate the friction stir additive manufacturing process, a 40 mm × 8 mm × 8 mm (L×B×H) material was fabricated by adding five 1.6 mm thick plates. A similar coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian based finite element model was used to predict the effects of sound process parameters, such as the tool’s rotational speed and the translational speed. The temperature predicted by the model was used to predict the microhardness distribution in the sample and to further elucidate the hardness change in the weld zone, which showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The microstructure of the samples was analyzed, and the mechanical properties of the additive manufactured samples were characterized and compared with those of other AM techniques via tensile tests and tensile shear tests.