Purdue University Graduate School
A_Characterization_of_Hypersonic_Stagnation_Point_Injection_in_Noisy_and_Quiet_Flow.pdf (78.33 MB)

A Characterization of Hypersonic Stagnation Point Injection in Noisy and Quiet Flow

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posted on 2024-04-29, 18:54 authored by Dominick E DeFazioDominick E DeFazio

The Boeing-AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) was used for a set of experiments aiming to characterize the stability regimes of stagnation point injection in noisy and quiet flow across an array of different injected gases. Four gases were used in this experiment: air, helium, carbon dioxide, and argon. These gases were injected at varying thrust coefficients, ranging from 0.0516 to 0.5666, using a 7 degree half-angle cone with a 19 mm radius spherical nose and a single 1.93 mm-radius sonic jet in the center of the model. The primary data collected consists of schlieren images gathered at a sample rate of 76 kHz. These data were then analyzed using a shock tracking software to measure the physical locations of flow features as well as through spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) to analyze specific modes in the flow.

Through this analysis, it was observed that three principle modes exist in stagnation point injection regardless of the injecting gas: a high frequency vortex-coupled mode, a low frequency Mach-shock-rigid mode, and a hybrid mode residing between these two modes. The first two modes were observed in all stability regimes, whereas the hybrid mode was only observed in the bifurcated regime. Furthermore, the unsteady regime was observed to be mostly characterized by this first, vortex-coupled mode. Conversely, the steady regime was observed to be driven by the Mach-shock-rigid mode instead. This transition was measured to occur as the thrust coefficient was increased.

This research also found that freestream noise resulted in an amplified and widened frequency range within the Mach-shock-rigid mode. This same freestream noise did not appear to have an impact on the other two principle modes; however, in some cases the noise produced in the Mach-shock-rigid mode due to this freestream noise did in fact mask the other principle modes.

Lastly, it was observed that the thrust coefficient, in and of itself, is not the sole indicator of stability in stagnation point injection. Across the different injected gases in this research, transition between the stability regimes did not in fact occur at a constant thrust coefficient value. Additionally, even within the same injected gas, this transition did not occur at the same thrust coefficient value between noisy and quiet runs—indicating an effect of freestream noise on stability.



United States Air Force

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Degree Type

  • Master of Science


  • Aeronautics and Astronautics

Campus location

  • West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Joseph Jewell

Additional Committee Member 2

Brandon Chynoweth

Additional Committee Member 3

Eric Dietz

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