A Heterogeneous Multirate Simulation Approach for Wide-bandgap-based Electric Drive Systems
Recent developments in semiconductor device technology have seen the advent of wide-bandgap (WBG) based devices that enable operation at high switching frequencies. These devices, such as silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), are becoming a favored choice in inverters for electric drive systems because of their lower switching losses and higher allowable operating temperature. However, the fast switching of such devices implies increased voltage edge rates (high dv/dt) that give rise to various undesirable effects including large common-mode currents, electromagnetic interference, transient overvoltages, insulation failure due to the overvoltages, and bearing failures due to
microarcs. With increased use of these devices in transportation and industrial applications, it is imperative that accurate models and efficient simulation tools, which can predict these high-frequency effects and accompanying system losses, be established. This research initially focuses on establishing an accurate wideband model of a surface-mount permanent-magnet
ac machine supplied by a WBG-based inverter. A new multirate simulation framework for predicting the transient behavior and estimating the power losses is then set forth. In this approach,
the wideband model is separated into high- and low-frequency models implemented using two different computer programs that are best suited for the respective time scales. Repetitive execution of the high-frequency model yields look-up tables for the switching losses in the semiconductors, electric machine, and interconnecting cable. These look-up tables are then incorporated into the low-frequency model that establishes the conduction
losses. This method is applied to a WBG-based electric drive comprised of a SiC inverter and permanent-magnet ac machine. Comparisons of measured and simulated transients are provided.