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Advancements in Spin Wave Devices for Next-Generation Radio Frequency Technology
The ferrimagnetic electrical insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) has been proved a promising magnonic platform that allows for a variety of application within microwave fre- quency range. This dissertation focuses on the development of novel spin wave resonators and filters for next-generation radio frequency technology.
Chapter 1 begins with an introduction to modern radio frequency communication tech- nology and motivation of our research on novel radio frequency devices.
Chapter 2 discusses about the properties of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin film platform and theory of magnetostatic waves (MSW) within the magnetic thin film system. Three different types of magnetostatic wave modes, known as magnetostatic forward volume wave (MSFVW), magnetostatic backward volume waves (MSBVW) and magnetostatic surface wave (MSSW), are illustrated in this section. They have very distinct dispersion relations and require different transduction technology, which leads to disparate designs for devices utilizing different modes. The damping mechanism and linewidth of the magnetostatic modes will also be discussed in this chapter.
Chapter 3 will showcase a new YIG-on-Si platform created using novel YIG bonding technology and the first ever on-chip MSFVW hairpin resonator on the YIG-on-Si platform. In the first part, we would like to show finite element analysis of YIG-on-Si MSFVW hairpin resonator and prove the capability of the hairpin transducer incorporated with YIG thin film to yield lower self-inductance and stronger excitation field. These unique properties are beneficial for generating high coupling between magnon and microwave domains. In the following sections, the bonding technology essential for creation of YIG-on-Si platform and key fabrication technology of hairpin devices are explained in detailed. With well defined fabrication process established, we will demonstrate that the hairpin magnetostatic wave resonator obtained through the process is magnetically tunable with a high coupling efficiency over 50%. An out-of-plane Z-directional tunable magnetic field results in forward volume spin-wave resonance with frequency in the 5G band. This technology enables us to build on-chip devices of desirable high coupling and magnetic tuning on the new YIG-on-Insulator platform and provides possibility of magnetic tuning and band-pass filter at radio-frequency range.
Chapter 4 demonstrates a planar monolithic yttrium iron garnet (YIG) Chebyshev bandstop filter on traditional gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) substrate with tunable frequency, low insertion loss and high rejection. This filter is created in YIG micro-machining technol- ogy that allows direct placement of metal transducers on YIG for strong spin-wave coupling. With an out-of-plane 3900 Oe bias field, the bandstop filter exhibits 55 dB maximum stop- band rejection at a center frequency of 6 GHz, with 2 dB passband insertion loss and 37.8 dBm passband IIP3. By applying different bias fields, the stopband center frequency is tuned from 4 GHz to 8 GHz while maintaining more than 30 dB rejection. Incorporated with proper design of tunable compact electromagnet, this new filter design can provide attenuation of spurs appearing across the 5G and X-band spectrum.
In chapter 5, we will explore the properties of YIG thin-film materials in depth. Both YIG-on-Si and YIG-on-GGG platform under different conditions will be examined. Results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), scanning tunneling microscope (STM) on the YIG thin films will be presented. Those results will cast light onto the study of limiting factors of our YIG-on-Si and YIG-on-GGG devices.
- Doctor of Philosophy
- Physics and Astronomy
- West Lafayette