Purdue University Graduate School
MS_Thesis_LakshmiSrinivasan.pdf (3.32 MB)

Analysis of Flame Blow-Out in Turbulent Premixed Ammonia/Hydrogen/Nitrogen - Air Combustion

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posted on 2022-12-08, 16:51 authored by Lakshmi SrinivasanLakshmi Srinivasan


With economies shifting towards net-zero carbon emissions, there is an increased interest in carbon-free energy carriers. Hydrogen is a potential carbon-free energy source. However, it poses several production, infrastructural, and safety challenges. Ammonia blends have been identified as a potential hydrogen carrier and fuel for gas turbine combustion. Partially cracked ammonia mixtures consist of large quantities of hydrogen that help overcome the disadvantages of pure ammonia combustion. The presence of nitrogen in the fuel blends leads to increased NOx emissions, and therefore lean premixed combustion is necessary to curb these emissions. Understanding the flame features, precursors, and dynamics of blowout of such blends due to lean conditions is essential for stable operation, lean blowout prediction, and control. 

In this study, high-fidelity large eddy simulations for turbulent premixed ammonia/hydrogen/nitrogen-air flames in an axisymmetric, unconfined, bluff-body stabilized burner are performed to gain insights into lean blowout dynamics. Partially cracked ammonia (40% NH3, 45% H2, and 15% N2, by volume) is chosen as fuel since its laminar burning velocity is comparable to CH4-air mixtures. A finite rate chemistry model with a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism (36 species and 247 reactions) is utilized to capture characteristics of various species during blowout. A comprehensive study of the flow field and flame structure for a weakly stable burning at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 near the blowout limit is presented. Further, the effects of blowout on the heat release rate, vorticity, distribution of major species, and ignition radicals are studied at four time instances at blowout velocity of 70 m/s. Since limited data is available on turbulent premixed combustion of partially cracked ammonia, such studies are essential in understanding flame behavior and uncertainties with regard to blowout.


Degree Type

  • Master of Science


  • Mechanical Engineering

Campus location

  • West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Veeraraghava Raju Hasti

Additional Committee Member 2

Robert P Lucht

Additional Committee Member 3

Luciano Castillo