Assessment On Insecticide Resistance In Bed Bugs (Cimex Lectularius L) Collected From A Poultry Farm
An emerging issue in North America and other developed countries around the world is dealing with the blood feeding ectoparasite, Cimex lectualrius L. Bed bugs not only infest human homes but also poultry (chicken) farms, in particular cage free barns. In comparison to conventional caged housing systems, cage free facilities offer more hiding places for bed bugs. As such, with the increase in the number cage free poultry facilities across the USA, there is an increased risk that bed bug infestations could become more frequent in chicken houses. To combat these infestations new research is needed to help understand insecticide resistance displayed by poultry house bed bugs in comparison to a susceptible bed bug population. In addition to insecticide resistance, the efficacy of insecticides used in poultry houses could be affected by dust and chicken manure that contaminate all areas of a barn. The objectives of this study were to:
I. To determine the status of insecticide resistance in the PH2019 (poultry house 2019) bed bug strain compared to the laboratory strain.
II. To analyze the effects of substrate contamination on insecticide efficacy against the PH2019 bed bug strain.
This study included experiments to test resistance of four poultry house registered products (Talstar, Tempo SC, EcoRaider, and Rabon) in the PH2019 poultry bed bug population in comparison to the laboratory strain in direct spray and residual bioassays. Additionally, experiments to test the efficacy of the above-mentioned products against the PH2019 field strain on contaminated and clean stainless-steel tiles were also performed. Data from resistance assessment direct spray and residual bioassays suggested that the PH2019 population was not resistant to the two pyrethroid insecticides (Talstar and Tempo SC) and the essential oil product EcoRaider. However, the PH2019 strain displayed >100 and 800-fold resistance to the organophosphate insecticide Rabon (tetrachlorvinphos) in direct spray and residual bioassays, respectively. Contamination of the bioassay substrate with chicken manure did not reduce insecticide efficacy against the PH2019 population.
In conclusion, this study suggests that the efficacy of certain pyrethroid products is superior to that of essential oil-based and organophosphate products dismissing the suggestion that all bed bugs collected after 1990’s exhibit cross-resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. However, the data does suggest the presence of organophosphate resistance in the PH2019 strain. Finally, contamination of the bioassay substrate did not change the outcomes of the bioassays and product efficacy was statistically equivalent on contaminated and clean tiles.