Mark Woollam Thesis Dissertation
Reason: The data and results are on embargo as they contain intellectual property in the process of being patented, as well as manuscripts currently being prepared.
until file(s) become available
CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND BIOMARKERS OF DISEASE AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION FIBERS TO EVALUATE GAS SENSING LAYERS
Canines can detect different diseases simply by smelling different biological sample types, including urine, breath and sweat. This has led researchers to try and discovery unique volatile organic compound (VOC) biomarkers. The power of VOC biomarkers lies in the fact that one day they may be able to be utilized for noninvasive, rapid and accurate diagnostics at a point of care using miniaturized biosensors. However, the identity of the specific VOC biomarkers must be demonstrated before designing and fabricating sensing systems. Through an extensive series of experiments, VOCs in urine are profiled by solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify biomarkers for breast cancer using murine models. The results from these experiments indicated that unique classes of urinary VOCs, primarily terpene/terpenoids and carbonyls, are potential biomarkers of breast cancer. Through implementing chemometric approaches, unique panels of VOCs were identified for breast cancer detection, identifying tumor location, determining the efficacy of dopaminergic antitumor treatments, and tracking cancer progression. Other diseases, including COVID-19 and hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) were also probed to identify volatile biomarkers present in breath samples. VOC biomarker identification is an important step toward developing portable gas sensors, but another hurdle that exists is that current sensors lack selectivity toward specific VOCs of interest. Furthermore, testing sensors for sensitivity and selectivity is an extensive process as VOCs must be tested individually because the sensors do not have modes of chromatographic separation or compound identification. Another set of experiments is presented to demonstrate that SPME fibers can be coated with materials, used to extract standard solutions of VOCs, and analyzed by GC-MS to determine the performance of various gas sensing layers. In the first of these experiments, polyetherimide (PEI) was coated onto a SPME fiber and compared to commercial polyacrylate (PAA) fibers. The second experiment tuned the extraction efficiency of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) - carbon black (CB) composites and showed that they had higher sensitivity for urinary VOC extraction relative to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber. These results demonstrate SPME GC-MS can rapidly characterize and tune the VOC adsorption capabilities of gas sensing layers.
SCH: EXP: Canine-Inspired Smart Sensor for Detecting Hypoglycemia from Human Breath
Directorate for Computer & Information Science & EngineeringFind out more...