Purdue University Graduate School
2022.12.8 Omar Aljowaiser Master Thesis .pdf (5.74 MB)

Characterization of Electrostatic Spray Breakup in Immiscible Fluid

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posted on 2022-12-08, 19:21 authored by Omar AljowaiserOmar Aljowaiser

Electrostatic spray is a spray that is induced by an interaction between the surface charge on the liquid meniscus and the externally applied electrical field that forms a conical shape known as the Taylor Cone. Electrostatic spray can be seen in a variety of different fields in modern times, such as, agriculture, combustion, space propulsion, and medical applications. The experimental setup for any electrostatic spray consists of the following components: a syringe pump filled with an ionic fluid, a high voltage power supply, and a ground source. The orientation of the nozzle, set to a horizontal or vertical orientation, and the interface that is examined, liquid/air or liquid/liquid interface are two parameters that can vary from one setup to another while still using the same components to form the electrostatic spray. In this experimental study, the characteristic of the electrostatic spray of two immiscible fluids, liquid/liquid interface, with a horizontal nozzle orientation, was analyzed. The two immiscible fluids that were chosen for this experiment were olive oil, the ambient fluid, and pure ethanol, the working fluid. A set range of 0 – 5 kV with an increment of 0.5 kV was applied to the working fluid with a flowrate of 0.1 mL/min. The distance between the nozzle and the copper disk was also altered for three different distances, 22.09, 14.6 and 10.33 mm. Different patterns and trajectories were captured and analyzed using both a high-speed camera and a long exposure camera. Formation of vortices was recorded in the induced flow. The general trend was found was an increase in the droplets’ velocity with the increase of the applied voltage. Additionally, there was an increase in the droplets’ velocity was recorded as the copper disk was moved closer to the nozzle. A dimensional number, Jowaiser’s number Jo, has been proposed where it relates the electric forces to the inertial forces. It can be used to predicts the phase that the flow experiences. The four phases that a flow can experience are the droplet phase, transition phase, spray phase, and the shorting phase.  


Degree Type

  • Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering


  • Mechanical Engineering

Campus location

  • West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Jun Chen

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee co-chair

Terrence Meyer

Additional Committee Member 2

Paul Sojka