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DEVELOPMENT OF A LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE ANTAGONIST FOR THE TREATMENT OF SEPSIS

thesis
posted on 10.09.2022, 02:51 authored by Simseok YukSimseok Yuk

Sepsis and septic shock are life-threating conditions, which resulted from a continuum of the body’s response to overwhelming infection. Elimination of bacteria through antibiotics is not sufficient, because the host is still left with a large amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that prevents the host immune system from returning to normal homeostasis. Synthetic LPS antagonists that can bind to LPS via electrostatic and/or hydrophobic interactions cause systemic toxicities. Moreover, LPS elimination alone may not address already established complications of sepsis. To address these challenges, we propose to develop nanoparticle formulations of LPS antagonists (D-TZP) that can be delivered systemically. Specifically, cholecalciferol (vitamin D) was encapsulated in a self-assembly of tannic acid/Fe3+ coordination complex (pTA) capsule, forming a core that could be surface-modified with LPS adsorbents, such as low molecular weight succinylated chitosan (LMZWC) and polymyxin B (PMB). D-TZP suppressed pro-inflammatory effects of LPS on the engineered human monocytes with significantly less cytotoxicity than free PMB at the equivalent dose. D-TZP increased the maximum tolerated dose of PMB by both intraperitoneal and intravenous administration. In the LPS-induced mouse model of sepsis, systemic administration of D-TZP immediately after LPS challenge neutralized the lethal effect of LPS. D-TZP also reduced the mortality of mice when given 2 h after the LPS challenge. D-TZP inhibited the mortality in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced bacteremia mouse model when given IV 2 h after the insult. In the CLP model, the D-TZP-treated animals also showed lower levels of both TNF-α and IL-10 cytokines as well as D-dimer levels, reflecting the attenuation of disseminated intravascular coagulation, compared to the vehicle-treated control group. Collectively, these results support that the D-TZP is a safe and effective systemic intervention of sepsis.

History

Degree Type

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Industrial and Physical Pharmacy

Campus location

West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Yoon Yeo

Additional Committee Member 2

Kinam Park

Additional Committee Member 3

Tonglei Li

Additional Committee Member 4

Harm HogenEsch

Additional Committee Member 5

Michael Tsifansky