Design and Synthesis of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors Featuring a Bicyclic Hexahydropyrrolofuran Scaffold
Since 1981, HIV/AIDS has affected over 70 million individuals worldwide. Due to the incorporation of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART), this deadly virus has now become a manageable chronic illness with a reduction in mortality and morbidity rates. Combination therapy targets multiple stages of the HIV replication cycle including fusion, entry, reverse transcription, integration, and maturation. The HIV-1 protease enzyme is responsible for cleavage and processing of viral polyproteins into mature enzymes and is a common therapeutic target for inhibition of HIV. To date, there have been many protease inhibitors approved by the FDA and introduced into the market. However, mutations within the protease enzyme has rendered some of these inhibitors ineffective. This has led to an ever-growing need to develop novel protease inhibitors to combat drug resistance through mutations. Described herein is the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of HIV-1 protease inhibitors featuring a novel hexahydropyrrolofuran (HPF) bicyclic scaffold as a P2 ligand to target binding interactions with Asp29 and Asp30. The HPF ligand provides a molecular handle that allows for further structure-activity discoveries within the enzyme. The HIV-1 protease inhibitors discussed feature carbamate, carboxamide, and sulfonamide derivatives which displayed good to excellent activity.