EDGE COMPUTING APPROACH TO INDOOR TEMPERATURE PREDICTION USING MACHINE LEARNING
This paper aims to present a novel approach to real-time indoor temperature forecasting to meet energy consumption constraints in buildings, utilizing computing resources available at the edge of a network, close to data sources. This work was inspired by the irreversible effects of global warming accelerated by greenhouse gas emissions from burning fossil fuels. As much as human activities have heavy impacts on global energy use, it is of utmost importance to reduce the amount of energy consumed in every possible scenario where humans are involved. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), one of the biggest greenhouse gas sources is commercial and residential buildings, which took up 13 percent of 2019 greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. In this context, it is assumed that information of the building environment such as indoor temperature and indoor humidity, and predictions based on the information can contribute to more accurate and efficient regulation of indoor heating and cooling systems. When it comes to indoor temperature, distributed IoT devices in buildings can enable more accurate temperature forecasting and eventually help to build administrators in regulating the temperature in an energy-efficient way, but without damaging the indoor environment quality. While the IoT technology shows potential as a complement to HVAC control systems, the majority of existing IoT systems integrate a remote cloud to transfer and process all data from IoT sensors. Instead, the proposed IoT system incorporates the concept of edge computing by utilizing small computer power in close proximity to sensors where the data are generated, to overcome problems of the traditional cloud-centric IoT architecture. In addition, as the microcontroller at the edge supports computing, the machine learning-based prediction of indoor temperature is performed on the microcomputer and transferred to the cloud for further processing. The machine learning algorithm used for prediction, ANN (Artificial Neural Network) is evaluated based on error metrics and compared with simple prediction models.