Purdue University Graduate School
Emmanuel Alagbe - Final MS Thesis.pdf (1.22 MB)


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posted on 2022-07-27, 14:56 authored by Emmanuel Oluwabukunmi AlagbeEmmanuel Oluwabukunmi Alagbe

The objective of this thesis was to investigate the effect of dietary enzymatically treated yeast (ETY) in weanling pigs and evaluate the effect of ETY in broiler chickens during a coccidia challenge. Two studies were carried out to investigate this objective.

The first experiment examined the effect of ETY on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, immune response, and gut health of weanling pigs. A total of 192 weanling pigs (6.0 ± 1.04 kg) were allocated to 4 corn, soybean-based diets with increasing concentrations of ETY (0, 1, 2, or 4 g/kg) for a 43-d trial. There were 8 replicate pens (4 replicate pens per sex) and 6 pigs per replicate for each dietary treatment. The experiment was set up as a randomized complete block design. Dietary ETY supplementation did not affect the growth performance of weanling pigs. The ATTD of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) linearly increased (P < 0.05) at d 28. The concentrations of serum antioxidant and antibody markers increased (P < 0.05) from d 14 to d 43; a linear increase (P < 0.05) in catalase was observed on d 14 with increasing ETY supplementation in the diets. The inclusion of ETY in the diet did not affect the mRNA abundance of anti-inflammatory markers in the ileal mucosa of pigs but increased (P < 0.01) glutathione peroxidase 4. Ileal villus height (VH) and villus height to crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio were greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed ETY supplemented diets relative to control pigs. However, jejunal VH and the VH:CD ratio was not affected by ETY inclusion in the diet. Pigs fed diets with increasing ETY levels had higher (P < 0.05) ileal digesta butyrate concentration relative to control pigs, but not propionate or acetate. 

The second experiment examined the effect of ETY on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal health of broiler chickens during a coccidia challenge. From d 1 to 14 post hatching, 480 broiler chickens (49.9 ± 3.95 g) were allocated to 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets with increasing concentrations of ETY (0, 1, or 2 g/kg). There were 16 replicate cages and 10 birds per cage. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block design with body weight (BW) used as a blocking factor. On d 14 post hatching, the birds were combined and re-randomized within each of the 0, 1, or 2 ETY g/kg experimental diets. Following this, the number of birds was reduced to 8 birds per cage with 8 replicate cages. Each of the 3 diet groups was split into a challenge or no-challenge group. This resulted in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 3 experimental diets and 2 challenge states. The BW ratio before re-randomization was maintained across all treatments during the reallotment. On d 15 post hatching, the birds in the challenge group were orally gavaged with 1 mL solution containing 25,000, 25,000, and 125,000 oocysts of E. maxima, E. tenella, and E. acervulina, respectively. The birds belonging to the no-challenge group were orally gavaged with 1 mL phosphate buffered saline. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS, and polynomial contrasts were used to estimate the linear and quadratic effects of ETY. The coccidia challenge (CC) decreased (P < 0.01) the BW gain, feed intake, and G:F of broiler chickens from d 14 to 21. Increasing supplementation of dietary ETY improved (P < 0.05) the G:F of birds. Also, the CC reduced (P < 0.01) the apparent total tract utilization of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and gross energy (GE). The CC reduced (P < 0.01) the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and the nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) of diets fed to broiler chickens. On d 21, dietary ETY linearly increased (P < 0.01) the apparent ileal digestibility of DM, N, and GE in broiler chickens. The CC increased (P < 0.01) the mRNA gene expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-6. There was a tendency (P < 0.1) for ETY to reduce IL-1β expression in broiler chickens on d 21. Additionally, ETY supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the gene expression of occludin in the ceca of broiler chickens but not claudin 1. Serum catalase increased (P < 0.05) with increasing supplementation of dietary ETY in broiler chickens on d 21. Dietary ETY linearly increased (P < 0.05) the ileal villus height to crypt depth ratio and ileal goblet cell count and density in broiler chickens. The ileal and excreta oocyst counts decreased (P < 0.01) with increasing supplementation of dietary ETY in coccidia-challenged broiler chickens on d 21. 

In summary, ETY inclusion in diets of weanling pigs partially reduced reactive oxygen species damage and enhanced intestinal health without negatively affecting growth performance. Hence, ETY could be favorable in attenuating some of the deleterious effects of post-weaning stress in weanling pigs. Dietary ETY also reduced oxidative damage, improved growth performance, enhanced nutrient utilization, and augmented intestinal development in broiler chickens. However, the inclusion of ETY did not mitigate the adverse effects of a coccidia challenge in broiler chickens. Therefore, further studies may be necessary to investigate the prospect of ETY as a dietary strategy for combating coccidiosis.


Degree Type

  • Master of Science


  • Animal Sciences

Campus location

  • West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Olayiwola Adeola

Additional Committee Member 2

Kolapo Ajuwon

Additional Committee Member 3

Darryl Ragland

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