Purdue University Graduate School
PhD Dissertation_Summer 2022_Qais Amarkhil_2.pdf (7.98 MB)


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posted on 2022-07-08, 12:30 authored by Qais AmarkhilQais Amarkhil


Available literature indicated that construction projects have been experiencing significant time overruns from their planned duration. In many cases, the primary reasons for project delays were ineffective planning and scheduling methods, poor communication and collaboration between the key stakeholders, and the construction operations and task requirements have been overlooked.

Construction project planning and scheduling are extensively studied topics, and several techniques have been developed to solve construction project scheduling problems. Traditional production planning and scheduling techniques are based on the push planning strategy, such as linear and network scheduling techniques. In the traditional method, the project scheduler calculates activity durations and then sequences them to determine when to complete the work. These techniques and planning methods have been criticized for lacking collaboration between project workers and realistic integration of the project time, location, and other essential resources to create a reliable work schedule. Furthermore, the inability to account for site operations, tasks, and workflow leads to waste and delay. 

Consequently, Ballard and Howell (1990) proposed the last planner system, and then Ballard et al. (2000) further developed the method. In the last planner system, all key stakeholders and the project management team actively communicate and coordinate to accomplish the project’s planned milestones. The last planner system and pull planning scheduling objective is improving workflow and increasing plan reliability. However, the pull planning scheduling method has some limitations. For instance, this method cannot be used to determine the available work capacity in each working space and show how much work can be completed at a given time. In addition, the pull planning and LPS system are highly descriptive and experienced-based, relying on the decision and experiences of the site supervisors. 

Available literature concerning construction project delay also indicated that ineffective planning and scheduling, slow decision-making, and poor communication and coordination had been the top critical causes of construction project delay.

Therefore, this research was conducted to minimize construction project time and cost overrun due to poor scheduling and production planning. The study has been conducted in two main parts. In the first part of this study, critical causes of project delay have been analyzed, and the contribution of poor planning and scheduling to construction project delays in different environments has been assessed. The relative importance index and Spearman’s coefficient techniques have been utilized to analyze the collected data.  The second section of this research work was conducted to investigate the construction scheduling reliability and production efficiency and developed the enhanced production planning and scheduling method to improve schedule reliability and production plan efficiency.  The reason for developing the enhanced production planning and scheduling method was to find the best work option to optimize work duration and efficiently plan required resources per category of the identified activities. In addition, this study has automated the scheduling input data capturing from the project BIM model by utilizing the developed visual program.

The study finding in the first section indicated that the top ten critical causes of identified causes of project delay in specified environments were significantly different. However, Ineffective project planning and scheduling had been among the most critical causes in all three conditions. Ineffective planning and scheduling were ranked number one in developed environment conditions, second in developing countries, and fifth in high-risk environments.

Study results in the second section have shown that the case study's executed schedule had experienced significant changes in the planned dates of individual tasks, project milestones, and resource allocation. The project schedule critical path and critical activities were changed repeatedly after each update, and the project structure work was delayed for 30 days from its initial plan, as illustrated in figures 33 to 35. Subsequently, the enhanced planning methodology has been applied in the selected case study to validate the developed method and evaluate the result of the case study. The case study implemented work plan has been compared with the enhanced planning-based developed schedule. The total duration of the enhanced planning-based method has been calculated to be 240 work days, which shows 30 days less time from implemented case study plan and 50 days from the project base plan in the construction document, as illustrated in figures 39 to 41. 

Furthermore, the production schedule sensitivity analysis has shown that the production schedule and the case study base plan tasks duration have not been significantly different since both schedules were created based on the similar size of the work crew, but in terms of the number of the planned task, the production schedule had been created based on the most suitable work option. Another advantage of the production schedule is that it is more reliable because the schedule is created for a shorter duration, not long before the project work starts, and it is created after multiple collaborations and assessment steps. In addition, the developed program in this study using Revit dynamo automated the extraction of input data from the BIM model to create the project schedule. 

In conclusion, based on the case study results, the enhanced production planning methodology and developed metrics and indices can be applied to various building construction projects to find the most suitable work option and create a reliable and resource-efficient work schedule. 


Degree Type

  • Doctor of Philosophy


  • Construction Management Technology

Campus location

  • West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Emad Elwakil

Additional Committee Member 2

Zarjon Baha

Additional Committee Member 3

Soowon Chang

Additional Committee Member 4

Bryan Hubbard