Effects of Different Forms of Vitamin C on Wheat Starch Properties
The research in this thesis investigated the effects of different vitamin C forms [ascorbic acid (Asc), sodium ascorbate, and calcium ascorbate] on gelatinization, pasting, and short-term retrogradation of wheat starch. Vitamin C is the third most supplemented nutrient in the U.S. and necessary for prevention or treatment of many illnesses. Asc is also used in food products as an acidulant that decreases microbial growth and extends shelf-life, flavoring agent that promotes sour taste, and bread improver that increases gluten development and dough strength in wheat doughs. Ascorbate salts are used as vitamin C sources when a sour taste or pH decrease is undesirable. The gelatinization temperature (Tgel) of wheat starch in solutions of the vitamin C forms and related acids and salts at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 M concentrations (or equivalent) was measured using a differential scanning calorimeter and, compared to starch in water, was increased by all the salt solutions and decreased only by Asc. Calcium ascorbate increased Tgel more than the other salts due to hydrogen bonds between ascorbate and starch and strong hydration by water of Ca2+ that stabilized the starch-water structure and inhibited gelatinization. Asc decreased starch Tgel while similarly acidic solutions did not because Asc caused more extensive starch hydrolysis, which promoted granule swelling and amylose leaching. The paste viscosity values of wheat starch in solution were measured with a rapid visco analyzer and, compared to starch in water, were increased by all salt solutions except NaCl and increased by all acidic solutions until breakdown, then decreased. Ascorbate salts increased paste viscosities significantly more than chloride salts due to the stabilization effect of ascorbate hydrogen bonds that increased the amount of larger starch structures, which increased the viscosity during pasting and short-term amylose retrogradation. Ascorbate-containing acidic solutions increased starch peak viscosity and decreased trough and final viscosities more than HCl because increased granular swelling and amylose leaching results in a more rapid and greater initial increase in viscosity and subsequent decrease in viscosity when granular breakdown overtakes swelling. The results of this work could be used by food researchers and product developers to supplement or fortify vitamin C in a starch-based food and/or modify the functions of starch within that food.
- Master of Science
- Food Science
- West Lafayette