Exploring the Structure of Fearlessness Using Self-Report Measures
Fearlessness is often discussed in relation to clinical and personality research (e.g., Davies & Craske, 2018; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). However, there is a paucity of research focusing on its empirical structure, in particular with from self-report measures. The present study examined the hierarchical structure of self-reported fearlessness and compared this structure to external criterion measures. Using a pre-registered analytical approach, we found evidence for the multidimensionality of fearlessness, and that a six-factor model fit the data best. Criterion variables measuring boldness, fear, anxiety, psychopathy, personality, and impulsivity, were correlated with the factor scores at each factor level of the model. The six-factor solution emerged as comprehensive and labeled Boldness, Anxiety, Surgency, Recklessness, Adventurousness, and Daring. The findings from this study elucidate how trait fearlessness unfolds at varying levels and how these factors relate to and diverge from various outcomes.