FABRICATION AND OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RARE EARTH SOLIDS FOR QUANTUM APPLICATIONS
Rare-earth ions (REIs) in solids are attractive optical centers due to their stable optical transitions and long lifetimes. Miniaturizing solid-state devices incorporated with REIs as quantum centers can play a key role in the implementation of future multiplexed quantum optical networks. Among the solid-state host materials for REIs, the Dissertation specifically studies silicon nitride (SiN) and crystalline lithium niobate (LN) materials.
SiN and Si are a CMOS-compatible material, and leveraging the well-developed technologies from the microelectronics industry is important for practical purposes because the cost of fabrication can be significantly reduced. Also, a recent study showed that the inhomogeneous broadening of Er-doped crystalline Si can be as low as 1GHz. Moreover, low-loss waveguide and high Q resonators were reported, making it a promising host for strong light-atom interactions.
On the other hand, LN is a promising host material for REIs due to its unique piezoelectric, electro-optic, nonlinear, and acousto-optic properties. Until recently, direct etching of LN has not been realized. But recently developed lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) platform and direct LN etching techniques made it possible to fabricate low loss and strong confinement waveguides. Furthermore, LN has been used for quantum light storage and on-chip photon generation and wavelength conversion. Motivated by these recent advances and the interesting properties of LN, the Dissertation investigates thin-film crystalline LN.
In this dissertation, the methods and processes of fabricating long waveguides and ring resonators in 1)silicon nitride and 2)lithium niobate are introduced and the study of optical characterizations of Yb3+ ions in two different solid-state host materials are presented, specifically including photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, lifetime measurement, absorption and other characterization of light-atom interactions.
Furthermore, a study of Tm3+ ion arrays in thin-film LN is presented, specifically including the PL lifetime comparison between the periodically ordered sample and the randomly ordered sample and the scattering/reflection measurement from periodic ion arrays, both indicating the early evidence of cooperative effects of arrays in solids. Also, the theory of collective emission from atomic arrays is presented. Finally, I propose future plans to improve the fabrication process in these materials and possible future research directions based on the Dissertation.
National Science Foundation, Award No. 2101928-ECCS
- Doctor of Philosophy
- Electrical and Computer Engineering
- West Lafayette