Improving Patient Outcomes using Deep Learning and Data Integration methods

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IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF CLINICAL PREDICTION TASKS BY USING STRUCTURED AND UNSTRUCTURED DATA COMBINED WITH A PATIENT NETWORK

thesis
posted on 21.06.2021, 18:54 by Sara Nouri GolmaeiSara Nouri Golmaei
With the increasing availability of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and advances in deep learning techniques, developing deep predictive models that use EHR data to solve healthcare problems has gained momentum in recent years. The majority of clinical predictive models benefit from structured data in EHR (e.g., lab measurements and medications). Still, learning clinical outcomes from all possible information sources is one of the main challenges when building predictive models. This work focuses mainly on two sources of information that have been underused by researchers; unstructured data (e.g., clinical notes) and a patient network. We propose a novel hybrid deep learning model, DeepNote-GNN, that integrates clinical notes information and patient network topological structure to improve 30-day hospital readmission prediction. DeepNote-GNN is a robust deep learning framework consisting of two modules: DeepNote and patient network. DeepNote extracts deep representations of clinical notes using a feature aggregation unit on top of a state-of-the-art Natural Language Processing (NLP) technique - BERT. By exploiting these deep representations, a patient network is built, and Graph Neural Network (GNN) is used to train the network for hospital readmission predictions. Performance evaluation on the MIMIC-III dataset demonstrates that DeepNote-GNN achieves superior results compared to the state-of-the-art baselines on the 30-day hospital readmission task. We extensively analyze the DeepNote-GNN model to illustrate the effectiveness and contribution of each component of it. The model analysis shows that patient network has a significant contribution to the overall performance, and DeepNote-GNN is robust and can consistently perform well on the 30-day readmission prediction task. To evaluate the generalization of DeepNote and patient network modules on new prediction tasks, we create a multimodal model and train it on structured and unstructured data of MIMIC-III dataset to predict patient mortality and Length of Stay (LOS). Our proposed multimodal model consists of four components: DeepNote, patient network, DeepTemporal, and score aggregation. While DeepNote keeps its functionality and extracts representations of clinical notes, we build a DeepTemporal module using a fully connected layer stacked on top of a one-layer Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) to extract the deep representations of temporal signals. Independent to DeepTemporal, we extract feature vectors of temporal signals and use them to build a patient network. Finally, the DeepNote, DeepTemporal, and patient network scores are linearly aggregated to fit the multimodal model on downstream prediction tasks. Our results are very competitive to the baseline model. The multimodal model analysis reveals that unstructured text data better help to estimate predictions than temporal signals. Moreover, there is no limitation in applying a patient network on structured data. In comparison to other modules, the patient network makes a more significant contribution to prediction tasks. We believe that our efforts in this work have opened up a new study area that can be used to enhance the performance of clinical predictive models.

History

Degree Type

Master of Science

Department

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Campus location

Indianapolis

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Xiao Luo

Additional Committee Member 2

Brian King

Additional Committee Member 3

Qingxue Zhang