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Lateral Fusion Bonding of Additive Manufactured Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites
Extrusion Deposition Additive Manufacturing (EDAM) is a process in which fiber-filled thermoplastic polymers pellets get molten in the extruder and deposited onto a build plate in a layer-by-layer basis. The use of short fiber composite for EDAM has enabled large-scale 3D printing structures and tools for traditional composite manufacturing processes. Successful EDAM production critically depends on the understanding of the process-structure-property relationship. Especially on the bonding between the beads which is of paramount importance in additive manufacturing since it affects primarily the fracture and strength characteristics of the printed part. Bonding is influenced mainly by the temperature history and the contact between the beads. Both of which is dependent on the fiber orientation within the bead induced by the flow deformation that occurs according to the printing parameters. This study aims to investigate and model the complex relationship between the printing conditions and inter-bead bonding in the lateral direction.
A framework was developed to facilitate this aim, and it contains a fusion bonding model that couples the time-temperature history and the bead-to-bead contact interface. Four deposition parameters were studied: the nozzle height, ratio of the print velocity to extrudate velocity, bead-to-bead spacing, and layer time. First, a deposition flow model was developed, utilizing the anisotropic viscous flow model and smooth particle hydrodynamic finite element formulation, to predict the fiber orientation state across the deposited bead and the bead-to-bead interface for the given set of deposition parameters. Next, the effect of printing conditions on the temperature history of the bead was discovered by utilizing the heat transfer process simulation in ADDITIVE3D. Third, the experimental characterization procedure for mode I fracture toughness in the lateral direction was developed, and the fracture toughness was characterized using linear elastic fracture mechanics principles. Lastly, the phenomenological model for non-isothermal lateral fusion bonding was characterized using the bead contact interface, temperature history, and fracture toughness properties. This work showed a comprehensive effort in fusion bonding modeling while also presented a valuable process-structure-property-performance relationship in EDAM. Guidance on the selection of printing conditions and strategy can be made using the developed model to print higher-strength parts.
- Doctor of Philosophy
- Aeronautics and Astronautics
- West Lafayette