Purdue University Graduate School
Akshat_Defense_AS5 (REVISED 02-14-2024).pdf (9.78 MB)


Download (9.78 MB)
posted on 2024-02-14, 18:35 authored by Akshat SharmaAkshat Sharma

Fretting wear occurs when two contacting bodies under load are subjected to small amplitude oscillatory motion. Depending on the applied normal load, displacement amplitude, coefficient of friction and resulting shear force, two types of fretting wear regimes exist – (i) partial slip and (ii) gross slip. At displacement amplitudes higher than gross slip condition, sliding wear regime prevails. Fretting wear becomes dominant in machine components subject to vibrations such as bearings, dovetail joints, etc. whereas sliding wear is observed in brakes, piston-ring applications, etc. The work in this dissertation primarily focuses on characterizing the material response of various machine components subjected to fretting and sliding wear regimes.

At first, the friction and fretting wear behavior of inlet ring and spring clip components used in land-based gas turbines was investigated at elevated (500°C) temperature. In order to achieve this objective, a novel high-temperature fretting wear apparatus was designed and developed to simulate the conditions existing in a gas turbine. The test apparatus was used to investigate fretting wear of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) Cr3C2-NiCr (25% wt.), high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr (25% wt.), HVOF sprayed T-800 and APS sprayed PS400 coated inlet rings against HVOF-sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr (25% wt.) coated spring clip. The PS400 coated inlet rings demonstrated a significant reduction in friction and wear. A finite element (FE) framework was also developed to simulate fretting wear in HVOF-sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr composite cermet coating. The material microstructure was modelled using Voronoi tessellations with a log-normal distribution of grain size. Moreover, the individual material phases in the coating were randomly assigned to resemble the microstructure from an actual SEM micrograph. A damage mechanics based cohesive zone model with grain deletion algorithm was used to simulate debonding of the ceramic carbide phase from the matrix and resulting degradation from repeated fretting cycles. The specific wear rate obtained from the model for the existing material microstructure was benchmarked against experiments. Novel material microstructures were also modeled and demonstrated to show less scatter in wear rate.

Following, a three-dimensional (3D) continuum damage mechanics (CDM) FE model was developed to investigate the effects of fretting wear on rolling contact fatigue (RCF) of bearing steels. In order to determine the fretting scar geometry, a 3D arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) adaptive mesh (AM) FE model was developed to simulate fretting wear between two elastic bodies for different initially pristine fretting pressures (0.5, 0.75 and 1 GPa) and friction coefficients (0.15, 0.175 and 0.25) resulting in stick zone to contact width ratios, c/a = 0.35, 0.55 and 0.75. The resulting wear profiles were subjected to various initially pristine RCF pressures (1, 2.2 and 3.4 GPa). The pressure profiles for RCF were determined by moving the contact over the fretted wear profiles in 21 steps. These pressure profiles were then used in the CDM-FE model to predict the RCF life of fretted surfaces. The results indicate that increased fretting pressure leads to more wear on the surface, thereby reducing RCF life. As the RCF pressure increases (PRCF ≥ 2.2 GPa), the effect of fretting on RCF life decreases for all fretting pressures and c/a values, indicating that life is primarily governed by the RCF pressure. The results from CDM-FE model were used to develop a life equation for evaluating the L10 life of fretted M-50 bearing steel for the range of tested conditions.

Lastly, the sliding wear characteristics of pitch and poly-acrylonitrile based carbon-carbon (C/C) composites were investigated in air and nitrogen environment by designing and developing a disc brake test rig. It was found that the temperature of the disc, the surrounding environment, the supplied energy flux as well as the type of composite play a critical role in determining whether C/C composites operate in normal wear or dusting wear regime. Further analysis of wear mechanisms revealed interface and matrix cracking with fiber breakage from tests in air environment, whereas in nitrogen environment, particulate and layered debris played a prominent role.


Degree Type

  • Doctor of Philosophy


  • Mechanical Engineering

Campus location

  • West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Dr. Farshid Sadeghi

Additional Committee Member 2

Dr. Carl Wassgren

Additional Committee Member 3

Dr. Marcial Gonzalez

Additional Committee Member 4

Dr. Vilas Pol

Usage metrics




    Ref. manager