Purdue University Graduate School

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posted on 2022-07-28, 23:06 authored by Kyeongeun SongKyeongeun Song

Carbon fiber bending during Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) milling is an important factor on the quality of the machined surface. When the milling tool rotates, the fiber first contacts the rake face instead of the tool edge at a certain cutting angle, then the fiber is bent instead of being cut by the tool. It causes the matrix and the fiber to fall out, and the fiber is broken from deep inside the machined surface. The broken fibers are pulled out as the tool rotates, which is known as pull-out fibers. The machining defect is the main cause of deteriorating the quality of the machined surface. To reduce such machining defects, it is important to predict the carbon fiber bending during CFRP milling. However, it is difficult to determine a point where fiber bending occurs because the fiber cutting angle changes every moment as the tool rotates. Therefore, in this study, CFRP milling simulation was performed to numerically analyze the machining parameters such as fiber cutting angle, fiber length, and the magnitude of fiber bending according to the different milling conditions. In addition, the deformation of the matrix existing between carbon fibers is predicted based on the fiber bending information obtained through simulation, and matrix shear strain energy model is developed. Also, the relationship between the matrix shear strain energy and machining quality is analyzed. Through verification experiments under various machining conditions, it is confirmed that the quality of the machined surface deteriorated as the matrix shear strain energy increased. Moreover, this study analyzed the fiber cutting mechanism considering bent fibers during CFRP milling and proposed a method to identify the type of machining mechanism through machining sound analysis. Through experiments, it was verified that fiber bending or defects can be identified through machining sound analysis in the high-frequency range between 7,500 Hz and 14,800 Hz. From the analysis, the effect of different chip thickness in up-milling and down-milling on fiber bending was investigated by analyzing simulation and sound signal. From machining experiments, the effect of this difference on cutting force and machining quality was verified. Lastly, we developed a minimum chip thickness and fiber fracture model in CFRP milling and analyzed the effect of fractured fibers on the machining sound. Carbon fibers located below the minimum chip thickness do not contact the tool edge and are compressed by the bottom face of the tool, and these fibers are excessively bent and broken. As these broken fibers are discharged while scratching the flank face of the tool, a loud machining sound is generated. Moreover, through the verification experiment, it was confirmed that the number of broken fibers is proportional to the loudness of the sound, and calculated number of broken fibers for one second using the fiber fracture model coincides with the high-frequency machining sound range of 7,500 Hz to 14,800 Hz.


Degree Type

  • Doctor of Philosophy


  • Mechanical Engineering

Campus location

  • West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Martin Byung-Guk Jun

Additional Committee Member 2

Galen B. King

Additional Committee Member 3

Peter H. Meckl

Additional Committee Member 4

John W. Sutherland