Mitotic Cell Detection in H&E Stained Meningioma Histopathology Slides
Meningioma represent more than one-third of all primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors,and it can be classified into three grades according to WHO (World Health Organization) in terms of clinical aggressiveness and risk of recurrence. A key component of meningioma grades is the mitotic count, which is defined as quantifying the number of cells in the process of dividing (i.e., undergoing mitosis) at a specific point in time. Currently, mitosis counting is done manually by a pathologist looking at 10 consecutive high-power fields (HPF) on a glass slide under a microscope, which is an extremely laborious and time-consuming process. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the use of computerized methods to automate the detection of mitotic nuclei with limited labeled data.We built computational methods to detect and quantify the histological features of mitotic cells on a whole slides image which mimic the exact process of pathologist workflow. Since we do not have enough training data from meningioma slide, we learned the mitotic cell features through public available breast cancer datasets, and predicted on meingioma slide for accuracy. We use either handcrafted features that capture certain morphological, statistical, or textural attributes of mitoses or features learned with convolutional neural networks (CNN). Hand crafted features are inspired by the domain knowledge, while the data-driven VGG16models tend to be domain agnostic and attempt to learn additional feature bases that cannot be represented through any of the handcrafted features. Our work on detection of mitotic cells shows 100% recall, 9% precision and 0.17 F1 score. The detection using VGG16performs with 71% recall, 73% precision, and 0.77 F1 score.Finally, this research of automated image analysis could drastically increase diagnostic efficiency and reduce inter-observer variability and errors in pathology diagnosis, which would allow fewer pathologists to serve more patients while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and precision. And all these methodologies will increasingly transform practice of pathology, allowing it to mature toward a quantitative science.