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Multi-Objective Optimization of Plug-in HEV Powertrain Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization
thesisposted on 10.05.2021, 15:40 by Omkar Mahesh ParkarOmkar Mahesh Parkar
Increase in the awareness environmental conservation is leading the automotive industry into the adaptation of alternatively fueled vehicles. Electric, Fuel-Cell as well as Hybrid-Electric vehicles focus on this research area with aim to efficiently utilize vehicle powertrain as the first step. Energy and Power Management System control strategies play vital role in improving efficiency of any hybrid propulsion system. However, these control strategies are sensitive to the dynamics of the powertrain components used in the given system. A kinematic mathematical model for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) has been developed in this study and is further optimized by determining optimal power management strategy for minimal fuel consumption as well as NOx emissions while executing a set drive cycle. A multi-objective optimization using weighted sum formulation is needed in order to observe the trade-off between the optimized objectives. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm has been used in this research, to determine the trade-off curve between fuel and NOx. In performing these optimizations, the control signal consisting of engine speed and reference battery SOC trajectory for a 2-hour cycle is used as the controllable decision parameter input directly from the optimizer. Each element of the control signal was split into 50 distinct points representing the full 2 hours, giving slightly less than 2.5 minutes per point, noting that the values used in the model are interpolated between the points for each time step. With the control signal consisting of 2 distinct signals, speed and SOC trajectory, as 50 element time variant signals, a multidimensional problem was formulated for the optimizer. Novel approaches to balance the optimizer exploration and convergence, as well as seeding techniques are suggested to solve the optimal control problem. The optimization of each involved individual runs at 5 different weight levels with the resulting cost populations being compiled together to visually represent with the help of Pareto front development. The obtained results of simulations and optimization are presented involving performances of individual components of the PHEV powertrain as well as the optimized PMS strategy to follow for given drive cycle. Observations of the trade-off is discussed in the case of Multi-Objective Optimizations.