# ON RECONSTRUCTING GAUSSIAN MIXTURES FROM THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO SAMPLES: AN ALGEBRAIC PERSPECTIVE

This thesis is concerned with the problem of characterizing the orbits of certain probability density functions under the action of the Euclidean group. Our motivating application is the recognition of a point configuration where the coordinates of the points are measured under noisy conditions. Consider a random variable X in R^{d} with probability density function ρ(x). Let x_{1} and x_{2} be independent random samples following ρ(x). Define ∆ as the squared Euclidean distance between x_{1} and x_{2}. It has previously been shown that two distributions ρ(x) and ρ(x) consisting of Dirac delta distributions in generic positions that have the same respective distributions of ∆ are necessarily related by a rigid motion. That is, there exists some rigid motion g in the Euclidean group E(d) such that ρ(x) = ρ(g · x) for all x ∈ R^{d} . To account for noise in the measurements, we assume X is a random variable in R^{d} whose density is a k-component mixture of Gaussian distributions with means in generic position. We further assume that the covariance matrices of the Gaussian components are equal and of the form Σ = σ^{2}1_{d} with 0 ≤ σ^{2} ∈ R. In Theorem 3.1.1 and Theorem 3.2.1, we prove that, when σ^{2} is known, generic k-component Gaussian mixtures are uniquely reconstructible up to a rigid motion from the density of ∆. A more general formulation is proven in Theorem 3.2.3. Similarly, when σ^{2} is unknown, we prove in Theorem 4.1.1 and Theorem 4.1.2 that generic equally-weighted k-component Gaussian mixtures with k = 1 and k = 2 are uniquely reconstructible up to a rigid motion from the distribution of ∆. There are at most three non-equivalent equally weighted 3-component Gaussian mixtures up to a rigid motion having the same distribution of ∆, as proven in Theorem 4.1.3. In Theorem 4.1.4, we present a test to check if, for a given k and d, the number of non-equivalent equally-weighted k-component Gaussian mixtures in R^{d} having the same distribution of ∆ is at most (k choose 2) + 1. Numerical computations showed that distributions with k = 4, 5, 6, 7 such that d ≤ k −2 and (k, d) = (8, 1) pass the test, and thus have a finite number of reconstructions up to a rigid motion. When σ^{2} is unknown and the mixture weights are also unknown, we prove in Theorem 4.2.1 that there are at most four non-equivalent 2-component Gaussian mixtures up to a rigid motion having the same distribution of ∆.

## History

## Degree Type

- Doctor of Philosophy

## Department

- Mathematics

## Campus location

- West Lafayette