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ON THE BUTTERFLY-LIKE EFFECT OF TURBULENT WALL-BOUNDED FLOWS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY
We study the effect of minute perturbations by using blowing jets at upstream and bio-inspired micro denticles on turbulence large-scale motions which are observed to be crucial in controlling heat transfer, noise and drag reduction. This work is divided into two phases. In first phase, we studied the effect of blowing perturbations at upstream on large-scale motions and associated co?herent vortical structures which are crucial in enhancing heat transfer by promoting mixing. The second phase is focused on impact of flow dynamics in preventing the biofouling using micro bioinspired structures and the importance of flow regime in designing the antifouling coating us?ing bioinspired structures is demonstrated, and subsequently, separation bubble dynamics and its characterization is carried out for a transonic channel imposed with pressure gradient to further expand our thesis outcomes to utilize micro bioinspired structures in aerospace applications, noise reduction, and to delay separation.
Extensive studies were focused on the importance of large-scale motions (LSM) and their con?tribution to TKE and turbulence mixing. Although there are studies focusing on the λ2 coherent vortical structures and large-scale motions separately, there are no studies addressing the control?ling using upstream perturbations on the large-scale motions and their associated λ2 vortices. In the first phase of our studies, we used the DNS data of channel flow for Reτ = 394 generated using in-house code. In these simulations, we created blowing perturbations using spanwise jets of low blowing ratio, 0.2, placed at upstream. The spatial large-scale motions are extracted using a a novel 3D adaptive Gaussian filtering technique developed based on Lee and Sung  for turbulent pipe flows. POD is used to extract the energetic large-scale motions and coherent vortical structures are extracted using λ2-criterion for its efficiency in educing coherent structures in cross flow jets. The results show that the upstream perturbations enhance streamwise heat flux via energetic LSM and also create a secondary peak of scalar production in the log-layer showing that the perturbations alter LSMs to enhance the heat transfer. Filtered large-scale field from Gaussian filtering technique have an integral length scale greater than 2h (where h is channel half-height) are used to obtain λ2 vortices. The resulted λ2 vortices are of ring-type and have higher signature of temperature than their counterpart. The pre-multiplied spectra shows that the upstream perturbations can excite the large-scale wave-numbers which are in the same order as the jet diameter and spacing between them. Simulations show the presence of secondary peak in the log-layer and increased turbulence production which are eminent of large-scales. Furthermore, our results suggest that jet spacing and diameter are crucial in exciting large-scale field to control turbulent flows.
Evans, Hamed, Gorumlu, et al.  modeled the denticles present on Mako shark skin into a diverging micro-pillars. They conducted experimental studies in a water tunnel using these on the back of airfoil exposed to an adverse pressure gradient flow. They observed that presence of these pillars reduced the re-circulation bubble (form drag) by 50%. They proposed a blowing and suction type mechanism by which the micro pillars interact with the boundary layer. However, the details of underlying interfacial mechanism is not completely understood. The unique impact of flow conditions on anti-biofouling and the corresponding mechanisms for the first time is illustrated. We employed commercially available bioinspired structures as micro-diverging pillars making it feasible to apply in real life. We demonstrated the underlying mechanism by which bio?inspired structures are responsible for anti-biofouling. To study the pressure gradient effects on the separation under transonic conditions, we performed direct numerical simulations (DNS) in a non?equilibrium flow created by a sinsuoidal contraction and also, we quantified the separation length,
detachment, and attachment points of separation bubble imposed with various pressure gradients and their variation in the transonic and subsonic regimes. We noticed that the resultant shear at the attachement led to the enhancement of coherent structures which are extended into the outer layer under transonic flow which is quite different than the subsonic flow.
- Doctor of Philosophy
- Mechanical Engineering
- West Lafayette