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OPERANDO ANALYTICS OF LITHIUM ELECTRODEPOSITION
Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are at the forefront of energy storage. However, the performance of the LIB is hampered by several degradation mechanisms in the cell. Lithium plating is a competing process occurring at the anode during intercalation at high rates and high states of charge leading to reduced cycle life, capacity loss, and safety concerns. The process of deposition of metallic lithium is limited to the anode and can be identified by monitoring the anode potential in a full cell.
A three-electrode pouch cell was used as an in-operando tool for monitoring lithium plating and an approach to quantify lithium plating as a function of anode parameters was proposed. The electrode kinetics at various states of lithiation at different ambient temperatures were determined to identify the limiting electrode and the electrochemical process with higher activation energy at every operational parameter.
A novel anode potential controlled charging strategy for lithium-ion cells which eliminates lithium plating under most aggressive conditions was developed and studied under various temperatures. The effect of cathode degradation upon eliminating lithium plating is discussed to understand the futuristic design of fast charging protocols.