OSTEOCYTE SIGNALING AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE ACTIVITES OF OSTEOBLASTS AND BREAST CANCER CELLS
In this study, we first examined the roles of metabolic signaling, specifically global AMPK modulators and mitochondria-specific AMPK inhibitor (Mito-AIP), as well as mechanical force in beta catenin signaling through interaction between osteocytes and precursor osteoblasts as well as osteocytes and breast cancer cells. We also evaluated the role of metabolic signaling in Rho GTPases including RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42. We observed that AMPK activator (A769662) and Mito-AMPK stimulated beta catenin translocation to the nucleus, indicating the activation of Wnt signaling, while Mito-AIP did not significantly affect beta catenin activation in osteoblasts. We also observed that osteocyte conditioned medium (CM) treated with Mito-AIP substantially increased beta catenin signaling in osteoblasts, while decreasing beta catenin signaling in breast cancer cells. CM of osteocytes treated with fluid flow increased beta catenin signaling in breast cancer cells. A769662 and Mito-AIP also decreased the activities of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 in cancer cells which are known to regulate cancer cell migration.
Additionally, we evaluated the roles of intracellular and extracellular moesin (MSN) protein in well-established oncogenic signaling proteins, such as FAK, Src, and RhoA as well beta catenin signaling. Constitutively active MSN (MSN+) significantly increased FAK and Src activities in cancer cells, but decreased the activity of RhoA. Surprisingly, CM of mesenchymal stem cells treated with MSN+ decreased the activities of FAK, Src, and RhoA, suggesting the inhibitory role of extracellular MSN in tumor-promoting signaling. Our results suggest the distinct role of AMPK signaling, specifically at mitochondria of osteocytes, in the activities of beta-catenin signaling in osteoblasts and breast cancer cells and the distinct role of intracellular and extracellular MSN in these two types of cell.