PREDICTIVE MODELS TRANSFER FOR IMPROVED HYPERSPECTRAL PHENOTYPING IN GREENHOUSE AND FIELD CONDITIONS
Hyperspectral Imaging is one of the most popular technologies in plant phenotyping due to its ability to predict the plant physiological features such as yield biomass, leaf moisture, and nitrogen content accurately, non-destructively, and efficiently. Various kinds of hyperspectral imaging systems have been developed in the past years for both greenhouse and field phenotyping activities. Developing the plant physiological prediction model such as relative water content (RWC) using hyperspectral imaging data requires the adoption of machine learning-based calibration techniques. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been known to automatically extract the features from the raw data which can lead to highly accurate physiological prediction models. Once a reliable prediction model has been developed, sharing that model across multiple hyperspectral imaging systems is very desirable since collecting the large number of ground truth labels for predictive model development is expensive and tedious. However, there are always significant differences in imaging sensors, imaging, and environmental conditions between different hyperspectral imaging facilities, which makes it difficult to share plant features prediction models. Calibration transfer between the imaging systems is critically important. In this thesis, two approaches were taken to address the calibration transfer from the greenhouse to the field. First, direct standardization (DS), piecewise direct standardization (PDS), double window piecewise direct standardization (DPDS) and spectral space transfer (SST) were used for standardizing the spectral reflectance to minimize the artifacts and spectral differences between different greenhouse imaging systems. A linear transformation matrix estimated using SST based on a small set of plant samples imaged in two facilities reduced the root mean square error (RMSE) for maize physiological feature prediction significantly, i.e., from 10.64% to 2.42% for RWC and from 1.84% to 0.11% for nitrogen content. Second, common latent space features between two greenhouses or a greenhouse and field imaging system were extracted in an unsupervised fashion. Two different models based on deep adversarial domain adaptation are trained, evaluated, and tested. In contrast to linear standardization approaches developed using the same plant samples imaged in two greenhouse facilities, the domain adaptation extracted non-linear features common between spectra of different imaging systems. Results showed that transferred RWC models reduced the RMSE by up to 45.9% for the greenhouse calibration transfer and 12.4% for a greenhouse to field transfer. The plot scale evaluation of the transferred RWC model showed no significant difference between the measurements and predictions. The methods developed and reported in this study can be used to recover the performance plummeted due to the spectral differences caused by the new phenotyping system and to share the knowledge among plant phenotyping researchers and scientists.
- Doctor of Philosophy
- Agricultural and Biological Engineering
- West Lafayette