Particle Image Velocimetry in a High-Pressure Turbine Stage at Aerodynamically Engine Representative Conditions
thesisposted on 05.03.2020, 19:09 by Daniel C Inman
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a well-established technique for determining the flow direction and velocity magnitude of complex flows. This paper presents a methodology for executing this non-intrusive measurement technique to study a scaled-up turbine vane geometry within an annular cascade at engine-relevant conditions. Custom optical tools such as laser delivery probes and imaging inserts were manufactured to mitigate the difficult optical access of the test section and perform planar PIV. With the use of a burst-mode Nd:YAG laser and Photron FASTCAM camera, the frame straddling technique is implemented to enable short time intervals for the collection of image pairs and velocity fields at 10 kHz. Furthermore, custom image processing tools were developed to optimize the contrast and intensity balance of each image pair to maximize particle number and uniformity, while removing scattering and background noise. The pre-processing strategies significantly improve the vector yield under challenging alignment, seeding, and illumination conditions. With the optical and software tools developed, planar PIV was conducted in the passage of a high-pressure stator row, at mid-span, in an annular cascade. Different Reynolds number operating conditions were achieved by modifying the temperature and mass flow. With careful spatial calibration, the resultant velocity vector fields are compared with Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulations of the vane passage with the same geometry and flow conditions. Uncertainty analysis of the experimental results is also presented and discussed, along with prospects for further improvements. Lastly, the adaptations of the diagnostic technique needed to assess rotor tip technology in a rotating facility are detailed.