Polarization-dependence provides a unique handle for extending the dimensionality of optical microscopy, with particular benefits in nonlinear optical imaging. Polarization-dependent second order nonlinear optical processes such as second harmonic generation (SHG) provide rich qualitative and quantitative information on local molecular orientation distribution. By bridging Mueller and Jones tensor, a theoretical framework was introduced to experimentally extend the application of polarization-dependent SHG microscopy measurements toward in vivo imaging, in which partial polarization or depolarization of the beam can complicate polarization analysis. In addition, polarization wavefront shaping was demonstrated to enable a new quantitative phase contrast imaging strategy for thin transparent samples. The axially-offset differential interference contrast microscopy (ADIC) was achieved as a combination of classic Zernike phase contrast and Nomarski differential interference contrast (DIC) methods. The fundamentally unique manner of this strategy also inspired rapid volumetric analysis in time dimension that is accessible for most existing microscopy systems. Finally, the dimensionality of high speed twophoton fluorescence imaging was extended to the spectral domain by spatial/spectral multiplexing, enabling beam scanning two photon fluorescence microscopy with 17 frames per second rate and over 2000 effective spectral data points.