Poultry Consumption and Human Health: How Much Is Really Known? A Systematically Searched Scoping Review and Research Perspective
The purpose of this scoping review was to systematically search and chronicle the available scientific literature pertinent to chicken/poultry intake and human health. The protocol was uploaded to Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/2k7bj/) and was conducted in accordance with recommended guidelines from PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) extension for scoping reviews (PRIMSA-Scr). Articles and scientific literature of all types (observational, experimental, narrative/literature reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analyses) assessing chicken/poultry intake and human health were included. A total of 13,141 articles were identified and 540 met the inclusion criteria. Among these 540 articles, 212 articles focused on cancer morbidity and mortality; 22 on cancer risk factors; 41 on cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality; 52 on CVD risk factors; 32 on diabetes morbidity and mortality; 33 on diabetes risk factors; 42 articles on body weight and body composition, and 181 categorized as “Other”, which included nutrient status, psychological well-being/mental health, cognitive outcomes, microbiome outcomes, chronic kidney disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, skin disorders, and fertility, among others. Among the included articles, 373 were observational, 77 were reviews and meta-analyses and 70 were experimental.This scoping review systematically identifies scientific literature pertinent to poultry intake and all facets of human health. It provides the types of article designs that exist for each designated health outcome, as well as the years in which research was published by health outcome. This review highlights areas where poultry research is apparently lacking. The influences of processed poultry in human health outcomes should be assessed, and cooking methods of poultry should be reported in both RCTs and OBS articles to understand the role of poultry more completely in human health outcomes. This review also provides suggestions for potential RCTs that would help to elucidate the effects of consuming fresh versus processed poultry products on cardiometabolic and cancer risk factor outcomes. Additionally, this review gave guidance on where systematic reviews assessing poultry intake and the following health outcomes are warranted: body mass index/overweight/obesity, CVD morbidity and mortality, and T2DM risk factors and morbidity.