CHAPTER 1. REVISION OF THE GENUS PHRENAPATES GRAY 1832
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REVISION OF THE GENUS PHRENAPATES GRAY 1832 AND A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE SUBTRIBAL LIMITS OF THE SUBFAMILY PHRENAPATINAE (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
A revision of the Neotropical darkling beetle genus Phrenapates Gray 1832 (Tenebrionidae: Phrenapatinae) was conducted. Using over 300 specimens of Phrenapates, the genus is redescribed with its taxonomic history and classification summarized. Lectotypes are designated for Phrenapates bennettii Gray 1832, P. ohausi Gebien 1910, P. dux Gebien 1910, and P. educator Gebien 1910 to stabilize species concepts. Two new species are described: Phrenapates gilloglyi Rincon & Smith sp. nov. and Phrenapates fortunaensis Rincon & Smith sp. nov. A total of eight species are now recognized (P. bennettii, P. ohausi, P. dux, P. mandibularis, P. educator, P. latreillei, P. gilloglyi, and P. fortunaensis). Distribution maps and a key to Phrenapates species are provided.In order to assess the status and relationships of the tribes in the subfamily Phrenapatinae, a molecular dataset was constructed for phlogenetic analyses. Nine gene regions were used: nuclear wingless (wg), mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb), mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), nuclear Arginine Kinase (ArgK), ribosomal RNA (12S, 16S, & 18S), nuclear ribosomal 28S, and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase domain of rudimentary (CAD). Taxa were selected based on the availability of nucleotide sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases, as well as previously unpublished sequences provided by the Smith lab. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that: (1) the subfamily Phrenapatinae is likely monophyletic; (2) Archaeoglenes is sister to the other phrenapatines in all analyses which, alongside morphological evidence, supports the concept of the tribe Archaeoglenini; (3) the relationship between Phrenapatini and Penetini varied between analyses, though morphological characters used to separate the two tribes appear stable; (4) Penetini, the most species rich tribe within the subfamily, may not be monophyletic.