ROBUST MULTIPLE-INPUT MULTIPLE-OUTPUT CONTROL OF GAS EXCHANGE PROCESSES IN ADVANCED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
thesisposted on 2021-10-29, 12:31 authored by Sree Harsha RayasamSree Harsha Rayasam
Efficient engine operation is a fundamental control problem in automotive applications. Robust control algorithms are necessary to achieve satisfactory, safe engine performance
at all operating conditions while reducing emissions. This thesis develops a framework for control architecture design to enable robust air handling system management.
The first work in the thesis derives a simple physics-based, control-oriented model for turbocharged lean burn engines which is able to capture the critical engine dynamics that are
needed to design the controller. The control-oriented model is amenable for control algorithm development and includes the impacts of modulation to any combination of four actuators: throttle valve, bypass valve, fuel rate, and wastegate valve. The controlled outputs: engine speed, differential pressure across throttle and air-to-fuel ratio are modeled as functions of selected states and inputs. Two validation strategies, open-loop and closed-loop are used to validate the accuracy of both nonlinear and linear versions of the control-oriented model. The relative gain array is applied to the linearized engine model to understand the degree of interactions between plant inputs and outputs as well as the best input-output pairing as a function of frequency. With strong evidence of high degree of coupling between inputs and outputs, a coordinated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) controller is hypothesized to perform better than a single-input single-output (SISO) controller. A framework to design robust model-based H1 MIMO controllers for any given linear plant, while considering state and output multiplicative uncertainties as well as actuator bandwidths is developed. The framework also computes the singular structure value, μ for the uncertain closed-loop system to quantify robustness, both in terms of stability and performance. The multi-tracking control problem targets engine speed, differential pressure across throttle as well as air-to-fuel ratio to achieve satisfactory engine performance while also preventing compressor surge and reducing engine emissions. A controller switching methodology using slow-fast controller decomposition and hysteresis at switching points is proposed to smoothly switch control authority between several MIMO controllers. The control design approach is applied to a truth-reference GT-Power engine model to evaluate the closed-loop controller performance. The engine response obtained using the robust MIMO controller is compared with that obtained using a state-of-the-art benchmark controller to evaluate the additional benefits of the MIMO controller.
In the second study, a robust 2-degree of freedom controller that commands eBooster speed to control air-to-fuel ratio, and a robust MIMO coordinated controller to control gas
exchange process in a diesel engine with electrified air handling architecture are developed. The MIMO controller simultaneously controls engine speed, mass fraction of the recirculated exhaust gas as well as air-to-fuel ratio. The actuators available for control in the engine include the exhaust gas recirculation valve, exhaust throttle valve, fuel injection rate, eBooster speed, eBooster bypass valve. To design the robust eBooster controller, the input-output relationship between eBooster speed and air-to-fuel ratio is estimated using system identification techniques. The robust MIMO controller is synthesized using a physics-based mean value control-oriented engine model that accurately represents the high-fidelity GT-Power model. In the first control strategy, the robust eBooster controller is added to an already existing stock engine control unit while in the second control strategy, the stock engine control unit is replaced with the multiple-input multiple-output controller. The two control architectures are tested under different operating conditions to evaluate the controller performance. Simulation results with the control architectures developed in the thesis are compared to a baseline engine configuration, where the engine operates without eBooster. Although it is observed that both these control algorithms significantly improve engine performance as compared to the baseline configuration, MIMO controller provides the best engine performance overall.