Sex-specific bone phenotype in the steptozotocin-induced murine model of diabetes
Bone disease and degradation is a ubiquitous problem, the complexity and treatment of which humanity has only begun to understand. Diabetes Mellitus is a disease which, in all forms, profoundly effects the organs of the body, bone included. As is often the case in biology, there are inherent differences between the sexes when considering skeletal development and disease progression and outcome. Although there are several reported mouse models for diabetes, until now there has been no characterization of bone disease in any model where diabetes occurs with equal frequency in males and females in greater than 90% of animals. In this study, a protocol for reliable induction of diabetes in both sexes using intraperitoneal injections of Streptozotocin was developed. The resulting bone phenotype in male and female mice was characterized and compared to weight and age matched control groups. In this model female diabetic mice exhibited a robust deficit in bone quality, while both sexes experienced loss of beta-cell mass and increased glycation of hemoglobin rendering the diabetic mice unable to produce insulin endogenously. Further, these mice were unable to metabolize exogenous insulin injected during insulin tolerance testing. This model is a strong candidate for future exploration of osteoporotic bone disease, Diabetes Mellitus, and the link between estrogen and glucose sensitivity.