Purdue University Graduate School
TW_Dissertation_10.3.2022.pdf (6.25 MB)

Sugar reduction in baked goods systems

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posted on 2022-10-05, 12:35 authored by Travest J WoodburyTravest J Woodbury


The research in this dissertation explored the impact of different sugar reducing agents [SRAs: sugars, sugar alcohols, oligosaccharides (OS), and polymers] on the thermal properties of starch (gelatinization, pasting, and retrogradation) and the baking performance of a model baked goods system (wire-cut cookies). The overconsumption of added sugar and underconsumption of dietary fiber have been linked to increased developmental risks for obesity and related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and colorectal cancer. Some SRAs, such as non-digestible oligosaccharides (OS), are considered soluble dietary fiber and could help offset the health detriments from excess sugar and low fiber intake, while also providing similar functionality (texture and structure) to that of sucrose in baked goods systems that rely on the control of phase and state changes in starch. The gelatinization temperature (Tgel) of wheat starch in the presence of SRA solutions at various concentrations (10% to 60% w/w) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and was best explained by SRA plasticization properties [solvent effective volume fraction (feff,w)], solution viscosity, and size (based on the previously proposed starch granule size limit of 1,000 g/mol). The paste viscosity parameters of starch in SRA solutions were measured with a routine rapid visco analyzer (RVA); and were increased in monosaccharide solutions and decreased in 6-carbon sugar alcohol and OS solutions as solution concentration was increased. Differences in starch paste response variables were explained by SRAs either promoting or restricting amylose leaching during heating. The recrystallization of amylopectin over time was promoted in monosaccharide solutions (glucose, fructose, allulose) and in many OS solutions, and was explained in terms of SRA hydrogen bonding interactions with water and/or starch chains. The appearance attributes of wire-cut cookies containing OS were similar to a sucrose control formulation; however, differences were found in cookie texture attributes which were linked to OS effects on solution viscosity and moisture retention during baking. Cookies made with allulose and erythritol were the least similar to the sucrose control across all quality attributes, and therefore these two SRAs would not be recommended as sugar replacers in low-moisture baked goods. The findings from this dissertation could be helpful to food researchers and product developers seeking to reduce or replace added sugars in starch-containing food systems with healthier alternatives.


Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research


Degree Type

  • Doctor of Philosophy


  • Food Science

Campus location

  • West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Lisa J. Mauer

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee co-chair

Bruce R. Hamaker

Additional Committee Member 2

Stephen R. Lindemann

Additional Committee Member 3

Ganesan Narsimhan

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