The Effects of Fiber Orientation State of Extrusion Deposition Additive Manufactured Fiber-Filled Thermoplastic Polymers
Extrusion Deposition Additive Manufacturing (EDAM) is a process in which fiber-filled thermoplastic polymers are mixed and melted in an extruder and deposited onto a build plate in a layer-by-layer basis. Anisotropy caused by flow-induced orientation of discontinuous fibers along with the non-isothermal cooling process gives rise to internal stresses in printed parts which results in part deformation. The deformation and residual stresses can be abated by modifying the fiber orientation in the extrudate to best suit the print geometry. To that end, the focus of this research is on understanding the effect of fiber orientation state and fiber properties on effective properties of the printed bead and the final deformation of a part. The properties of three different orientation tensors of glass fiber-filled polyamide and carbon fiber-filled polyamide were experimentally and virtually characterized via micromechanics. A thermo-mechanical simulation framework developed in ABAQUS© was used to understand the effects of the varying fiber orientation tensor and fiber properties on the final deformation of printed parts. In particular, a medium-size geometry that is prone to high deformation was simulated and compared among the three orientation tensors and two material systems. This serves to be a good preliminary study to understand microscopic properties induced deformations in EDAM.