Purdue University Graduate School
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posted on 2021-07-26, 23:17 authored by Clarissa Marie HartmanClarissa Marie Hartman
Externally visible characteristics (EVCs) predicted from an unknown sample of DNA are particularly useful in forensics as they can provide information beyond that of an STR profile. Current EVCs which are highly studied and well-predicted include iris, hair, and skin color. Notably, models predicting iris color, such as IrisPlex, are the most accurate with up to ~95% accuracy; however, some inaccurate predictions occur, as is evidenced by the ~5%. Often, these are due to green or hazel eyes, which are frequently viewed as intermediate. Though, some of the inaccurate predictions are due to true-blue being predicted as brown and vice versa.

Previous research has theorized the possibility of two SNPs, rs12913832 and rs1800407, acting as a functional haplotype affecting iris color. rs12913832 is recognized as the most predictive SNP for iris color and highly significant in other pigmentation phenotypes; presently, rs1800407 is the second-ranked SNP in the IrisPlex 6-SNP system. Both SNPs are highly variable in Europe, where the majority of variation in iris color originates.

In the present study, we explore the SNP variation present in the genetic regions of OCA2-HERC2 as well as possible haplotypes. Our research centers around the functional haplotype and the addition of SNPs to the functional haplotype. In addition, three different ways of classifying the phenotype are assessed simultaneously. First, using a 4-point categorical phenotype—blue/blue grey, blue/green yellow, hazel/light brown, and dark brown. Second, calculating a continuous scale from a quantitative phenotype in which the percentage of each categorical color has been measured. Third, using the IrisPlex 6-SNP system to predict eye color and identify individuals which have been inaccurately predicted.

Exploration of the SNP and haplotype variation resulted in two SNPs for both the categorical and quantitative phenotypes which were significantly correlated with hazel/light brown—rs1448484 and rs61335644, both as independent SNPs and when assessed in a haplotype with rs1800407-rs12913832. SNP rs1448484 has been associated with skin pigmentation previously and is located in a possible transcription factor binding site. SNP rs61335644 is not presently associated with pigmentation but is in complete LD with two SNPs in and around regulatory regions present in HERC2. Finally, the addition of rs1448484 and rs61335644 into the current IrisPlex 6-SNP system slightly improved each of the tested performance metrics for hazel/light brown and dark brown. Within the inaccurately predicted phenotypes, rs1800407 is confirmed to affect both inaccurately predicted groups and is the most significant SNP. Additionally, rs121918166, a missense variant in OCA2, is the second most significant SNP in true blue predicted as brown. Both SNPs were also the two most significant haplotypes with at least one allele being derived. Therefore, the next steps should include the addition of the functional haplotype and rs121918166 into the current IrisPlex model, and further testing of rs1448484 and rs61335644 on a molecular level. Consequently, the current IrisPlex model should also be reassessed on an independent test set using the 4-point categorical scale rather than the present 3-point scale.


Degree Type

  • Master of Science


  • Forensic and Investigative Sciences

Campus location

  • Indianapolis

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Susan Walsh

Additional Committee Member 2

Christine J. Picard

Additional Committee Member 3

Kathleen A. Marrs