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MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN-LIKE DECISION MAKING IN AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE PERATIONS

thesis
posted on 2024-04-25, 14:02 authored by Aishwarya SharmaAishwarya Sharma

Highway safety continues to pose a serious challenge to the social sustainability of transportation systems, and initiatives are being pursued at all levels of government to reduce the high fatality count of 42,000. At the same time, it is sought to ensure higher travel efficiency in order to increase economic productivity. The emergence of automated transportation provides great promise to mitigate these ills of the transportation sector that have persisted for so many decades. With regards to safety, such promise is rooted in the capability of autonomous vehicles to self-drive some or all of the time, thus reducing the impact of inherently errant human driving to which 95% of all crashes have been attributed. With regards to mobility, such promise is guided by the capability of the autonomous vehicle to carry out path planning, navigation, and vehicle controls in ways that are far more efficient than the human brain, thereby facilitating mobility and reducing congestion-related issues such as delay, emissions, driver frustration, and so on.

Unfortunately, the two key outcomes (safety and mobility) are reciprocal in the sense that navigation solutions that enhance safety generally tend to reduce mobility, and vice versa. As such, there is a need to assign values explicit to these performance criteria in order to develop balanced solutions for AV decisions. Most existing machine-learning-based path planning algorithms derive these weights using a learning approach. Unfortunately, the stability of these weights across time, individuals, and trip types, is not guaranteed. It is necessary to develop weights and processes that are trip situation-specific. Secondly, user trust in automation remains a key issue, given the relatively recent emergence of this technology and a few highly-publicized crashes, which has led to reservations among potential users.

To address these research questions, this thesis identifies various situational contexts of the problem, identifies the alternatives (the viable trajectories by fitting curves between the vehicle maneuver’s initial and final positions), develops the decision criteria (safety, mobility, comfort), carries out weighting of the criteria to reflect their relative significance, and scales the criteria to develop dimensionless equivalents of their raw values. Finally, a process for amalgamating the overall impacts of each driving decision alternative is developed based on the weighted and scaled criteria, to identify the best decision (optimal trajectory path). This multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem involves the collection of data through questionnaire surveys.

The weights obtained early in the MCDM process could be integrated into any one of two types of planning algorithms. First, they could be incorporated into interpolating curve-based planning algorithms, to identify the optimal trajectory based on human preferences. Additionally, they can be integrated into optimization-based planning algorithms to allocate weights to the various functions used.

Overall, this research aims to align the behavior of autonomous vehicles closely with human-driven vehicles, serving two primary purposes: first, facilitating their seamless coexistence on mixed-traffic roads and second, enhancing public acceptance of autonomous vehicles.

History

Degree Type

  • Master of Science

Department

  • Civil Engineering

Campus location

  • West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Samuel Labi

Additional Committee Member 2

Yiheng Feng

Additional Committee Member 3

Makarand Hastak