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UNVEILING THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY MODULATIONS ON AVIAN COCCIDIOSIS: INSIGHTS INTO GUT HEALTH AND GROWTH DYNAMICS

thesis
posted on 2024-05-28, 18:26 authored by Jing YuanJing Yuan

For this dissertation, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of a multienzyme mix and partially defatted black soldier fly larvae meal on chicken coccidiosis, focusing on growth performance, intestinal health, and microbiota dynamics. Experiment 1 examined the growth performance, nutrient utilization, microbiota modulations, and other gut health-related indicators of broiler chickens under coccidia challenge, with dietary supplementation of multienzyme, including phytase, xylanase, β-glucanase, amylase, hemicellulase, and pectinase. Ross 308 broilers were assigned to 4 treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement comprising of 0 or 50 g·kg-1 multienzyme and oral challenge with PBS or mixed Eimeria spp. oocysts (250,000 E. acervulina, 50,000 E. maxima, and 50,000 E. tenella). Multienzyme reduced (P < 0.05) Eimeria-induced loss in feed efficiency and nutrient utilization, partially explained by reduced decrease of b0,+ amino acid transporter in jejunum. Multienzyme suppressed (P < 0.05) the overexpression of interleukin-8 in the duodenum and jejunum and ameliorated (P = 0.05) the decreased expression of antioxidant heme oxygenase 1 in ileum induced by Eimeria infections. Multienzyme facilitated (P < 0.01) the bloom of short-chain fatty acid-producing and fiber-degrading microbes. The study concluded that multienzyme supplementation partially alleviated the adverse effects of Eimeria infections through various mechanisms, including enhanced nutrient utilization, reduced local inflammations, and restoration of microbial homeostasis. Experiment 2 investigated the growth dynamics, nutrient assimilation, and gut health responses of broiler chickens under coccidia challenge, with dietary supplementation of partially defatted black soldier fly larvae meal (pBSFLM) with increasing concentrations of 0, 60, 120 g/kg. During the infection phase (from d 13 to 19), interactions between Eimeria and pBSFLM revealed significant associations with gain to feed ratio (G:F) (P < 0.05) and cecal interferon-γ (IFN-γ, P < 0.05), while showing tendencies for crypt depth (P = 0.088) and cecal acetate concentration (P = 0.06). The incremental inclusion of pBSFLM demonstrated a negative effect on the G:F and the generation of IFN-γ and acetate in the ceca during coccidia challenge. Conversely in the non-challenged birds, the impact of dietary pBSFLM varied from neutral (e.g. G:F) to potentially advantageous (e.g. acetate). Challenged broilers exhibited decreased (P < 0.01) BW, feed intake (FI), G:F, as well as the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract nutrient utilization (ATTU) of DM, gross energy (GE), and nitrogen (N). Eimeria challenge led to reduced (P < 0.01) serum carotenoid concentrations, increased (P < 0.01) ileal crypt depth (CD), and an increase in the generation of branched-chain fatty acids, specifically isobutyrate (P = 0.059) and isovalerate (P < 0.05) in the ceca. Dietary pBSFLM addition caused a linear reduction (P < 0.05) in BW, FI, G:F, and N utilization. Furthermore, a tendency (P < 0.06) was observed where pBSFLM linearly decreased the villi height: CD ratio and reduced goblet cell density in the villi. Results from this experiment reveal that higher levels of pBSFLM supplementation, especially at 12%, had detrimental effects on growth, ileal morphology, cecal acetate production, and downregulated the expression of key cytokines in response to coccidia infection. In summary, these studies shed light on the multifaceted effects of dietary interventions on Eimeria infections in broiler chickens, with a specific emphasis on growth, nutrient utilization, and indicators of gut health.

History

Degree Type

  • Doctor of Philosophy

Department

  • Animal Sciences

Campus location

  • West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Olayiwola Adeola

Additional Committee Member 2

Kolapo M. Ajuwon

Additional Committee Member 3

Darryl Ragland

Additional Committee Member 4

Timothy Johnson

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