Efficient and Secure Equality-based Two-party Computation
thesisposted on 27.07.2021, 19:01 by Javad DarivandpourJavad Darivandpour
Multiparty computation refers to a scenario in which multiple distinct yet connected parties aim to jointly compute a functionality. Over recent decades, with the rapid spread of the internet and digital technologies, multiparty computation has become an increasingly important topic. In addition to the integrity of computation in such scenarios, it is essential to ensure that the privacy of sensitive information is not violated. Thus, secure multiparty computation aims to provide sound approaches for the joint computation of desired functionalities in a secure manner: Not only must the integrity of computation be guaranteed, but also each party must not learn anything about the other parties' private data. In other words, each party learns no more than what can be inferred from its own input and its prescribed output.
This thesis considers secure two-party computation over arithmetic circuits based on additive secret sharing. In particular, we focus on efficient and secure solutions for fundamental functionalities that depend on the equality of private comparands. The first direction we take is providing efficient protocols for two major problems of interest. Specifically, we give novel and efficient solutions for private equality testing and multiple variants of secure wildcard pattern matching over any arbitrary finite alphabet. These problems are of vital importance: Private equality testing is a basic building block in many secure multiparty protocols; and, secure pattern matching is frequently used in various data-sensitive domains, including (but not limited to) private information retrieval and healthcare-related data analysis. The second direction we take towards a performance improvement in equality-based secure two-party computation is via introducing a generic functionality-independent secure preprocessing that results in an overall computation and communication cost reduction for any subsequent protocol. We achieve this by providing the first precise functionality formulation and secure protocols for replacing original inputs with much smaller inputs such that this replacement neither changes the outcome of subsequent computations nor violates the privacy of sensitive inputs. Moreover, our input-size reduction opens the door to a new approach for efficiently solving Private Set Intersection. The protocols we give in this thesis are typically secure in the semi-honest adversarial threat model.