Exceptional Points and their Consequences in Open, Minimal Quantum Systems
Open quantum systems have become a rapidly developing sector for research. Such systems present novel physical phenomena, such as topological chirality, enhanced sensitivity, and unidirectional invisibility resulting from both their non-equilibrium dynamics and the presence of exceptional points.
We begin by introducing the core features of open systems governed by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians, providing the PT -dimer as an illustrative example. Proceeding, we introduce the Lindblad master equation which provides a working description of decoherence in quantum systems, and investigate its properties through the Decohering Dimer and periodic potentials. We then detail our preferred experimental apparatus governed by the Lindbladian. Finally, we introduce the Liouvillian, its relation to non-Hermitian Hamiltonians and Lindbladians, and through it investigate multiple properties of open quantum systems.