THE IMPACT OF DIETARY FIBER AND SUCROSE ALTERNATIVES ON TEXTURE PERCEPTION OF COOKIES
Low moisture baked goods (cookies, biscuits, etc.) are known for their high sugar content, low water content, and characteristic texture. The added sugar in baked goods has been a concern of health advocates due to the negative health implications of overconsumption of sugar. To minimize these health implications and support healthier food products, the replacement of sugar, sucrose, in low moisture baked goods with alternative sweeteners is of interest. The goal of this study was to improve understanding on how sweetener alternatives and dietary fiber interact with cookie ingredients and the subsequent cookie texture compared to sucrose containing cookies to aid in developing health-conscious low moisture baked goods.
The replacement of sucrose with sucrose replacers (SRs) encompassing a variety of structural and physicochemical properties (high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), amorphous sucrose, maltitol, allulose, isomalt, Benefiber, Miralax, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and isomalto-oligosacchrides (IMO)) in wire-cut cookies was investigated in terms of starch thermal properties, model cookie formulations, and sensory descriptive analysis. Starch thermal properties were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) while wire-cut cookie parameters were analyzed through aw, color (a, b, L), moisture loss, cookie dimensions (height, width, length), and cookie hardness (N) assays. Sensory descriptive analysis was used to ascertain texture perception of wire-cut cookies through five attributes (hardness, fracturability, pastiness, cohesiveness, and crumbliness).The onset gelatinization temperature (Tgel) was increased to a greater extent than sucrose by Miralax and FOS, and to the same extent by IMO, maltitol, and Benefiber at high concentrations (60%w/w). The SRs which performed similar to sucrose in wire-cut cookie baking (spread, moisture loss, hardness) and texture intensity ratings were amorphous sucrose, maltitol, and allulose. No significant differences in descriptive analysis intensity scores were found in crumbliness, cohesiveness, and pastiness between SRs and sucrose formulated wire-cut cookies. FOS, IMO, and Benefiber displayed significantly larger fracture intensity scores compared so sucrose and isomalt cookies were significantly less hard than sucrose cookies. Principal component analysis (PCA) related SRs effect on starch gelatinization, cookie baking properties, and descriptive analysis intensity scores, and indicated the mostly likely candidates for use in reduced sugar cookies are maltitol and allulose.