U-net based deep learning architectures for object segmentation in biomedical images
thesisposted on 04.08.2021, 16:23 authored by Nahian SiddiqueNahian Siddique
U-net is an image segmentation technique developed primarily for medical image analysis that can precisely segment images using a scarce amount of training data. These traits provide U-net with a high utility within the medical imaging community and have resulted in extensive adoption of U-net as the primary tool for segmentation tasks in medical imaging. The success of U-net is evident in its widespread use in nearly all major image modalities from CT scans and MRI to X-rays and microscopy. Furthermore, while U-net is largely a segmentation tool, there have been instances of the use of U-net in other applications. Given that U-net's potential is still increasing, this review examines the numerous developments and breakthroughs in the U-net architecture and provides observations on recent trends. We also discuss the many innovations that have advanced in deep learning and discuss how these tools facilitate U-net. In addition, we review the different image modalities and application areas that have been enhanced by U-net.
In recent years, deep learning for health care is rapidly infiltrating and transforming medical fields thanks to the advances in computing power, data availability, and algorithm development. In particular, U-Net, a deep learning technique, has achieved remarkable success in medical image segmentation and has become one of the premier tools in this area. While the accomplishments of U-Net and other deep learning algorithms are evident, there still exist many challenges in medical image processing to achieve human-like performance. In this thesis, we propose a U-net architecture that integrates a residual skip connections and recurrent feedback with EfficientNet as a pretrained encoder. Residual connections help feature propagation in deep neural networks and significantly improve performance against networks with a similar number of parameters while recurrent connections ameliorate gradient learning. We also propose a second model that utilizes densely connected layers aiding deeper neural networks. And the proposed third model that incorporates fractal expansions to bypass diminishing gradients. EfficientNet is a family of powerful pretrained encoders that streamline neural network design. The use of EfficientNet as an encoder provides the network with robust feature extraction that can be used by the U-Net decoder to create highly accurate segmentation maps. The proposed networks are evaluated against state-of-the-art deep learning based segmentation techniques to demonstrate their superior performance.