USING RANDOMNESS TO DEFEND AGAINST ADVERSARIAL EXAMPLES IN COMPUTER VISION
Computer vision applications such as image classification and object detection often suffer from adversarial examples. For example, adding a small amount of noise to input images can trick the model into misclassification. Over the years, many defense mechanisms have been proposed, and different researchers have made seemingly contradictory claims on their effectiveness. This dissertation first presents an analysis of possible adversarial models and proposes an evaluation framework for comparing different more powerful and realistic adversary strategies. Then, this dissertation proposes two randomness-based defense mechanisms Random Spiking (RS) and MoNet to improve the robustness of image classifiers. Random Spiking generalizes dropout and introduces random noises in the training process in a controlled manner. MoNet uses the combination of secret randomness and Floyd-Steinberg dithering. Specifically, input images are first processed using Floyd-Steinberg dithering to reduce their color depth, and then the pixels are encrypted using the AES block cipher under a secret, random key. Evaluations under our proposed framework suggest RS and MoNet deliver better protection against adversarial examples than many existing schemes. Notably, MoNet significantly improves the resilience against transferability of adversarial examples, at the cost of a small drop in prediction accuracy. Furthermore, we extend the usage of MoNet to the object detection network and use it to align with model ensemble strategies (Affirmative and WBF (weighted fusion boxes)) and Test Time Augmentation (TTA). We call such a strategy 3MIX. Evaluations found that 3Mix can significantly improve the mean average precision (mAP) on both benign inputs and adversarial examples. In addition, 3Mix is a lightweight approach to migrate the adversarial examples without training new models.
- Doctor of Philosophy
- Computer Science
- West Lafayette